Quelle: http://en.bir-robotic.ir/2014/04/linux-commands/



1 System Commands

2 Hardware related

3 Statistics and Analyze

4 Users

5 File Commands

6 Process Related

7 File Permission Related

8 Network

9 Compression / Archives

10 Install Package

11 Search

12 Login (ssh and telnet)

13 File transfer

14 Disk Usage

15 Directory

16 Keyboard shortcuts

System Commands

$ uname –a - display linux system information

$ uname –r - display kernel release information

$ uptime - show how long system running + load

$ hostname - show system host name

$ hostname -i - display the IP address of the host

$ last reboot - show system reboot history

$ date - show the current date and time

$ cal - show this month calendar

$ w - display who is online

$ whoami - who you are logged in as

$ finger user - display information about user

Hardware related

$ dmesg - detected hardware and boot messages

$ cat /proc/cpuinfo - CPU model

$ cat /proc/meminfo - hardware memory

$ cat /proc/interrupts - lists the number of interrupts per CPU per I/O device

$ lshw - displays information on hardware configuration of the system

$ lsblk - displays block device related information in Linux

$ free -m - used and free memory (-m for MB)

$ lspci -tv - show PCI devices

$ lsusb -tv - show USB devices

$ lshal - show a list of all devices with their properties

$ dmidecode - show hardware info from the BIOS

$ hdparm -i /dev/sda -show info about disk sda

$ hdparm -tT /dev/sda - do a read speed test on disk sda

$ badblocks -s /dev/sda - test for unreadable blocks on disk sda

Statistics and Analyze

$ top - display and update the top cpu processes

$ mpstat 1 - display processors related statistics

$ vmstat 2 - display virtual memory statistics

$ iostat 2 - display I/O statistics (2sec Intervals)

$ tail -n 500 /var/log/syslog - last 10 kernel/syslog messages

$ tcpdump -i eth1 - capture all packets flows on interface eth1

$ tcpdump -i eth0 'port 80' - monitor all traffic on port 80 ( HTTP )

$ lsof - list all open files belonging to all active processes

$ lsof -u testuser - list files opened by specific user

$ free –m - show amount of RAM

$ watch df –h - watch changeable data continuously


$ id - show the active user id with login and group

$ last - show last logins on the system

$ who - show who is logged on the system

$ groupadd admin - add group "admin" (force add existing group)

$ useradd -c "Joe Smith" -g admin -m joe - Create user "joe" and add to group "admin"

$ userdel joe - delete user joe (force,file removal)

$ adduser joe - add user "joe"

$ usermod - modify user information

File Commands

$ ls –al - display all information about files / directories

$ ls -alR - display all information about files / directories recursively

$ pwd - show current directory path

$ mkdir directory-name - create a directory

$ rm file-name - delete file

$ rm -r directory-name - delete directory recursively

$ rm -f file-name - forcefully remove file

$ rm -rf directory-name - forcefully remove directory recursively

$ cp file1 file2 - copy file1 to file2

$ cp -r dir1 dir2 - copy dir1 to dir2, create dir2 if it doesn’t exist

$ mv file1 file2 - move files from one place to another

$ ln –s /path/to/file-name link-name - create symbolic link to file-name

$ touch file - create or update file

$ cat > file - place standard input into file

$ more file - output the contents of file

$ head file - output the first 10 lines of file

$ tail file - output the last 10 lines of file

$ tail -f file - output the contents of file as it grows starting with the last 10 lines

$ gpg -c file - encrypt file

$ gpg file.gpg - decrypt file

Process Related

$ ps - display your currently active processes

$ ps aux | grep 'telnet' - find all process id related to telnet process

$ pmap - memory map of process

$ top - display all running processes

$ kill pid - kill process with mentioned pid id

$ killall proc - kill all processes named proc

$ pkill processname - send signal to a process with its name

$ bg - resumes suspended jobs without bringing them to foreground

$ fg - brings the most recent job to foreground

$ fg n - brings job n to the foreground

File Permission Related

$ chmod octal file-name - change the permissions of file to octal , which can be found separately for user, group and world; octal value 4 -read 2 –write 1 –execute

$ chown owner-user file - change owner of the file

$ chown owner-user:owner-group file-name - change owner and group owner of the file

$ chown owner-user:owner-group directory - change owner and group owner of the directory


$ ifconfig –a - display all network ports and ip address

$ ifconfig eth1 mtu 9000 up - set mtu to 9000

$ ifconfig eth0 - display specific ethernet port ip address and details

$ ifconfig -a | grep HWaddr - display MAC address

change MAC address:

# ifconfig eth0 down

# ifconfig eth0 hw ether 00:80:48:BA:d1:30

# ifconfig eth0 up

$ ip addr show - display all network interfaces and ip address (available in iproute2 package,powerful than ifconfig)

$ ip address add dev eth0 - set ip address

$ ethtool eth0 - linux tool to show ethernet status (set full duplex , pause parameter)

$ mii-tool eth0 - linux tool to show ethernet status (more or like ethtool)

$ ping host - send echo request to test connection (learn sing enhanced ping tool)

$ whois domain - get who is information for domain

$ dig domain - get DNS information for domain (screenshots with other available parameters)

$ dig -x host - reverse lookup host

$ host google.com - lookup DNS ip address for the name

$ hostname –i - lookup local ip address (set hostname too)

$ wget file - download file (very useful other option)

$ netstat -tupl - listing all active listening ports(tcp,udp,pid)

WiFi related:

$ iwconfig wlan0 essid "mynetworkESSID" - specify ESSID for the WLAN

$ dhclient wlan0 - to receive an IP address, netmask, DNS server and default gateway from the Access Point

$ iwconfig wlan0 mode managed key [WEP key] - 128 bit WEP use 26 hex characters, 64 bit WEP uses 10

$ iwconfig wlan0 mode master - set the card to act as an access point mode

$ iwconfig wlan0 mode managed - set card to client mode on a network with an access point

$ iwconfig wlan0 mode ad-hoc - set card to peer to peer networking or no access point mode

$ iwconfig wlan0 mode monitor - set card to RFMON mode

$ iwconfig wlan0 essid any - with some cards you may disable the ESSID checking

$ iwconfig wlan0 key 1111-1111-1111-1111 - set 128 bit WEP key

$ iwconfig wlan0 key off - disable WEP key

$ iwconfig wlan0 key open - sets open mode, no authentication is used and card may accept non-encrypted sessions

$ iwlist wlan0 scan - give the list of Access Points and Ad-Hoc cells in range (ESSID, Quality, Frequency, Mode etc.)

$ iwlist wlan0 power - list the various Power Management attributes and modes of the device

$ iwlist wlan0 txpower - list the various Transmit Power available on the device

$ iwlist wlan0 retry - list the transmit retry limits and retry lifetime on the device

Compression / Archives

$ tar cf test.tar test - create tar named test.tar containing test/

$ tar xf test.tar - extract the files from test.tar

$ tar czf test.tar.gz test - create a tar with gzip compression

$ gzip test - compress file and renames it to test.gz

Install Package

$ rpm -i pkgname.rpm - install rpm based package

$ rpm -e pkgname - remove package

Install from source

$ ./configure

$ make

$ make install

$ apt-get update - re-synchronize the package index files from their sources

$ apt-get upgrade - install the newest versions of all packages currently installed on the system from the sources

$ apt-get install package - install package

$ apt-get remove package - remove package

$ apt-cache search package - search for package


$ grep pattern files - search for pattern in files

$ grep -r pattern dir - search recursively for pattern in dir

$ locate file - find all instances of file

$ find /home/tom -name 'index*' - find files names that start with "index"

$ find /home -size +10000k - find files larger than 10000k in /home

Login (ssh and telnet)

$ ssh user@host - connect to host as user

$ ssh -p port user@host - connect to host using specific port

$ telnet host - connect to the system using telnet port

File transfer


$ scp file.txt server2:/tmp - secure copy file.txt to remote host /tmp folder

$ scp gordon@server2:/www/*.html /www/tmp - copy *.html files from remote host to current system /www/tmp folder

$ scp -r gordon@server2:/www /www/tmp - copy all files and folders recursively from remote server to the current system /www/tmp folder


$ rsync -a /home/apps /backup/ - synchronize source to destination

$ rsync -avz /home/apps gordon@ - synchronize files/directories between the local and remote system with compression enabled

Disk Usage

$ df –h - show free space on mounted filesystems

$ df -i - show free inodes on mounted filesystems

$ fdisk -l - show disks partitions sizes and types

$ du -ah - display disk usage in human readable form

$ findmnt - displays target mount point for all filesystem

$ mount device-path mount-point - mount a device


$ cd .. - go up one level of the directory tree

$ cd - go to $HOME directory

$ cd /test - change to /test directory

Keyboard shortcuts

Alt+Ctrl+T - open Terminal Window

Alt+Ctrl+L - lock the screen

Alt+Ctrl+Del - logoff

Alt+F4 - close current window

Alt+F2 - pop up command window (for quickly running commands)

Super-W - show all windows in the current workspace

Ctrl+Super+D - show desktop

Ctrl+A - select all items on list or text

Ctrl+C - copy all selected items to clipboard

Ctrl+X - cut all selected items to clipboard

Ctrl+V or Mouse middle button click - paste all selected items to clipboard

PrintScr - takes screenshot

Alt+PrintScr - takes screenshot of windows

Shift+PrintScr - takes screenshot of selected window area